EARLY WHITE HISTORY
If you've read the White History section of this web site, then you've read the history of many civilizations. You've read about the Swedish, the Germans, the Norwegians, French, and Russians. You've read about the British, Irish and Scots.
The history of each of these countries, plus numerous others, is interesting and distinct.
Did you notice the amazing similarity in the history of all these countries?
Sweden - settled by Indo-Europeans and Goths - 3200 BC
Norway - settled by Indo-Europeans - 3200 BC
Denmark - settled by Indo-Europeans and Celts - 3200 BC
Finland - settled by Indo-Europeans - 3200 BC
France - settled by Celts and Gauls (indo-European) - 2500 BC
Germany - settled by Indo-Europeans, Cimbri and Celts - 2300 BC
England - settled by Celts, Angles and Germanic tribes (indo-European) - 2300 BC
Austria - settled by Indo-Europeans - 2300 BC
Scotland - settled by Celts (indo-European) - 1100 BC
Iberia - settled by Celts (indo-European) - 1000 BC
Russia - settled by Indo-Europeans and Scythians - 800 BC
Netherlands - settled by Celts and Germanic tribes (indo-European) - 600 BC
Belgium - settled by Celts and Gauls (indo-European) - 500 BC
These countries were all settled by the same people. If you had thought logically about who the Europeans are, this makes sense. They basically look the same. Their culture is basically the same. Their values are basically the same.
Where did they come from?
That depends on who you ask
Who are the Celts?
Most acknowledge that the Celts did not originate in Europe. Those that acknowledge that the Celts did not originate in Europe will also admit that they came out of Asia (do not think Mongolia or China). Usually this is where they leave Celtic history. But there is lots more evidence of where the Celts originated...if you're willing to search for that evidence.
The Celts the Goths, Visigoths, and a host of other Germanic tribes are actually part of the larger Indo-European peoples.
The Celts were also known as Gauls and Galatians. They were as far east as Galatia.
Map of the Celts in Europe
The spot on the far right is Galatia
The Black Sea is north of Galatia
Where did these Celts come from?
Every people has a beginning
The Celts were part of the greater Indo-European racial group which included the Germanic tribes, Celts, Gauls, Goths, VIsiboths, and a host of other names. Notice that the Cimbri also settled Germany. The Scythians settled in Russia. These Indo-European tribes all originated in the same place.
They're the Same People
Historians have traced the indo-Europeans, to a point, following the horse. Who tamed the horse? The indo-Europeans. Who uses the horse in domestic duties and warfare? Europeans!
The Scythians or Scyths were an East Iranian speaking people of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who who dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. The name "Scythian" has also been used to refer to various peoples seen as similar to the Scythians, or who lived anywhere in a vast area covering present-day Ukraine, Russia and Central Asia, known until medieval times as Scythia.
Don't let the East Iranian tag throw you
These were indo-Europeans speaking an indo-European language
Who were the Scythians?
We'll get to that
The Cimmerians or Kimmerians were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Ukraine and Russia, in the 8th and 7th centuries BC.
According to historians, the origins of the Cimmerians are obscure but they are believed to be Indo-European
Their origins are only obscure to historians who have an inclusive, afro-centric world view
Notice where historians have placed the Cimerians -- just north of Urartu (Assyrian) Empire
Ancient Assyrian tablets place them there
It's impossible for historians to deny the existence or the location of these people
So they'll just mis-identify who they are
The following is summarized from Wikipedia and footnoted on that site
If you've studied this site enough, you'll understand exactly what they're saying -- and be amazed
Before you read about the Cimmerians, be sure and note the different spelling for their name:
Gamir, Gomara, Gimirri, Cimmerian, Khumri
The first historical record of the Cimmerians appears in Assyrian annals in the year 714 BC. These describe how a people termed the Gimirri helped the forces of Sargon II to defeat the kingdom of Urartu. Their original homeland, called Gamir or Uishdish, seems to have been located within the buffer state of Mannae. The later geographer Ptolemy placed the Cimmerian city of Gomara in this region. After their conquests of Colchis and Iberia in the First Millennium BC, the Cimmerians also came to be known as Gimirri in Georgian. According to Georgian historians, the Cimmerians played an influential role in the development of both the Colchian and Iberian cultures. The modern-day Georgian word for hero which is gmiri, is derived from the word Gimirri, a direct reference to the Cimmerians which settled in the area after the initial conquests.
Some modern authors assert that the Cimmerians included mercenaries, whom the Assyrians knew as Khumri, who had been resettled there by Sargon. However, later Greek accounts describe the Cimmerians as having previously lived on the steppes, between the Tyras (Dniester) and Tanais (Don) rivers. Several kings of the Cimmerians are mentioned in Greek and Mesopotamian sources, including Tugdamme (Lygdamis in Greek; mid-7th century BC), and Sandakhshatra (late-7th century).
The migrations of the Cimmerians were recorded by the Assyrians, whose king, Sargon II, died in battle against them in 705 BC. They are subsequently recorded as having conquered Phrygia in 696-695 BC, prompting the Phrygian king Midis to take poison rather than face capture. In 679 BC, during the reign of Esarhaddon of Assyria, they attacked Cilicia and Tabal under their new ruler Teushpa. Esarhaddon defeated them near Hubushna (tentatively identified with modern Cappadocia).
Our Note: To summarize, the Cimmerians occupied Lydia but were defeated around 626 BC. This marked the end of Cimmerian power, according to historians. Yet a century later their name is on the Persian monument called the Behistun inscription.
Back to Wikipedia:
The Cimmerians are thought to have had a number of offshoots. The Thracians have been identified as a possible western branch of the Cimmerians. If Herodotus is to be believed, both peoples originally inhabited the northern shore of the Black Sea, and both were displaced around the same time by invaders from further east. Whereas the Cimmerians would have departed this ancestral homeland by heading east and south across the Caucasus, the Thracians migrated west and south into the Balkans, where they established a successful and long-lived culture. The Tauri, the original inhabitants of Crimea, are sometimes identified as a people related to the Thracians.
Although the Cimmerians of historical record only appear on the stage of world history for a brief time (during the 7th century BC), numerous Celtic and Germanic peoples have traditions of being descended from the Cimmerians or Scythians, and some of their ethnic names might bear out this belief (e.g. Cymru, Cwmry or Cumbria, Cimbri) The Cimbri tribe, considered to be a Germanic tribe hailing from the Himmerland (Old Danish Himber sysæl) region lived in northern Denmark.
In addition, in sources beginning with the Royal Frankish Annals, the Merovingian kings of the Franks traditionally traced their lineage through a pre-Frankish tribe called the Sicambri (or Sugambri), mythologized as a group of "Cimmerians" from the mouth of the Danube river.
If the Scythians are assumed to be related to the Cimmerians, as has often been claimed, many other peoples claiming possible Scythian descent could also be added to this list.
Now we'll get back to the Scythians
The Ancient Greeks called the Saka, Scythians
The Sakas resided in and migrated over the plains of Eurasia from Eastern Europe to Zinjang Privince, China, from the Old Persian Period to the Middle Persian Period when they were displaced by or integrated with Turkic language speakers during the Turkic migration.
The ancient Greeks called the Sakas the Scythians but recognized that in the language of the Persian Empire they were called more nearly Sakai. To them the name Sakai in addition to meaning all the Scyths meant explicitly also the ones of Central Asia and the Far East. Because of where they lived the Romans recognized both Saceans (Sacae) and Scyths (Scythae). Stephanus of Byzantium referred to the Sakas in Ethnica as SAKA-sena, or Sakaraucae. Isidorus of Charax used the term "Saka" in his work "Parthian stations".
The Scythians were recognized in ancient languages at either end of their range. They were known to the Chinese as the Sai. Chinese Imperial reports by General Ban Chao and the Greek history by Stephanus Byzantinus record how the Sakasena, originally Scythians, were pushed west and displaced by Asian tribes who themselves became known as Scythians as they inhabited the regions they conquered. On the west they were among the first Iranians to enter the Middle East. The Assyrians of the time of Esarhaddon record campaigning against a people they called in the Akkadian the Ashkuza or Ishhuza. Hugh Winckler was the first to associate them with the Scyths and the identification remains without serious question. They were closely associated with the Gimirrai, who were the Cimmerians known to the ancient Greeks. These Scythians were mainly interested in settling in the kingdom of Urartu, which later became Armenia. The district of Shacusen, Uti Province, reflects their name. In ancient Hebrew texts, the Ashkuz (Ashkenaz) are even considered to be a direct offshoot from the Gimirri (Gomer). The Scythians also extended into the Ukraine south of Kieve and into Thrace and Macedon. In recognition of the fact that these latter were different enough to merit a distinct name the Achaemenids created a separate satrapy for them, Skudrā, though who used the term first, the Greeks or the Persians, remains unknown. The name appears in Elamitic as i-ku-ud-ra and in Akkadian as is-ku-du-ru. Not all the Iranians living in the north were called Scythians, although they may have been considered that. The Issedones and Massagetae were generally north of the Black Sea somewhere.
By the time of the Middle Iranian period, the Scyths had either dissimilated into peoples of other names, such as the Sarmatians, ALANS and Roxolani, or had been displaced by or assimilated to the Huns.
What is important about the Cimmerians, Scythians and Saka?
They were the same people!
Scythian Silver Coins of King Azes II(35 - 12 BC)
Notice the horse
There are Greek symbols on these Scythian coins
What's more, they were known by many names
they were merged with other people or became known by other names
such as Alans
The Alans became part of Gaul (France)
Alans were in areas of Poland and Russia
Alans were in parts of Germany
The Alans are part of Your Heritage as a White Person
Map of the Roman Empire under Hadrian (117 - 38 AD)
Notice that the Alani are in the north-east
Notice where the Scythae are located
see the name for Ireland?
What else do we know about the Scythians?
Ashkanian is the dynasty name of the Parthian empire and sources indicate that the Parthian revolt against Greek dominance over Persia started in the Semnan region.
Ashkanian means "Sakan people" or "Saka descendants". An Arab source names Sagsar as the place from which Ashkanians originated.
Sagsar, or according to varies sources, "Saka sar" or "Sagasar", is now modern Sangsar, a city in the mountainous region of Semnan Province, in the north of Iran.
So, the Saka and the Parthians were also the same people!
Who were the Parthians?
Young Man with Parthian Costume
Found in Syria, 3rd Century BC
Parthian era bronze statue believe to be of General Surena, who led the attack against the Romans in 53 BC that killed Crassus and his son
Who are the Parthians?
The Parni were an "east Iranian people", south-east of the Caspian Sea. The Parni were one of the three tribes of the DAHAE confederacy who lived east of the Caspian Sea.
In the middle of the 3rd century BCE, the Parni invaded Parthia, "drove away the Greek satraps, who had then only just acquired independence, and founded a new dynasty", i.e. that of the Arsacids.
Wikipedia claims not to know where they came from but "their original homeland may have been southern Russia from where they emigrated with other Scythian tribes." The present-day localization of the Dahae Parni is formed by Strabo's (Geographica 11, 1st century BCE) identification of the Parni/Dahae in the region between the Caspian Sea and Akhal Attock on the Indus River. This roughly corresponds to historic 'Sakastan', which gets its name from the Sakas/Scythians.
The first dateable mention of the nomad confederacy of the Dahae appears in the list of nations of Xerxes' Daeva inscription. In this list of the peoples and provinces of the Achaemenid Empire, the Dahae are identified in Old Persian as Dāha and are immediately followed by a "Saka" group, who are listed as being neighbors of the Dāha.
Did you catch the significance of this?
The Saka and Parni/Dahae were neighbors
We already know that the Saka and Scythians are the same people
This map shows us that Scythia and Parthia were neighbors!
Logic tells us that if the Parni/Dahae are their neighbors, most likely they're the same people as well
Just like modern Norwegians and Swedes are neighbors and the same people
This is good stuff!
Let's identify the Saka
Map of Sakastan around 100 BC
The Assyrians kept meticulous records
They'll tell us the identity of the Saka
Are you sitting on the edge of your seat?
The anticipation is killing us!
For the final chapter in your marvelous
we're going to take you back in time
to the beginning